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Domestic Wastewater Treatment System

What is domestic wastewater?

Domestic wastewater is used water for daily activities of humans such as bathing, cooking, personal hygiene, house hygiene… Domestic wastewater often contains organic, inorganic, pathogenic microorganisms that are dangerous if discharged directly into the environment. Therefore, it needs to be treated to remove contaminants before discharging into the water source.

Harmful ingredients in domestic wastewater

  • Suspended solids: sand, soil, hair, soap, leftovers…
  • Pathogenic microorganisms: bacteria, viruses, parasites… It’s in feces and urine.
  • Organic matter: protein, amino acids, carbohydrates from leftovers, grease… easy to pollute and deplete oxygen in the water.
  • Heavy metals: mercury, lead, cadmium… toxic to the organism.
  • Chemicals: detergents, dyes… It’s toxic.

Domestic wastewater treatment technology

  • Mechanical treatment: sedimentation, filtration, membrane filtration… remove residue, solids.
  • Chemical treatment: chlorination, ozone for disinfection, bactericidal.
  • Biological treatment: using microorganisms, enzymes that decompose organic compounds.
  • Physical treatment: electrolysis, electrochemistry, ultraviolet light sterilization.
  • Heat treatment: heating or boiling bactericidal.

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What is the domestic wastewater treatment system?

  • Collection system: pipeline, pump, sewage pump.
  • Septic tank: preliminary sedimentation.
  • Sedimentation tank: secondary sedimentation.
  • Anaerobic decomposition tank: microbiological treatment.
  • Filter tank: filter residue, heavy metal with activated carbon.
  • Disinfection tank: use chlorine, germicidal UV light.

Advantages and limitations of domestic wastewater treatment systems

Advantages:
  • Thorough treatment of toxic substances in wastewater.
  • Reduce water pollution.
  • Reuse water after treatment.
  • Application of modern technology, automation.
Limitations:
  • Large initial technology investment.
  • Requires regular maintenance and maintenance.
  • Need large area for installation.
  • The processing is complicated.

Domestic wastewater treatment projects

  • Yen Xa wastewater treatment plant in Hanoi: capacity of 200,000 m3 / day and night.
  • Thu Duc wastewater treatment plant in HCMC: capacity of 141,000 m3 / day.
  • Domestic wastewater treatment project in Binh Duong: investment of nearly VND 3,000 billion.
  • Nha Be wastewater treatment project in HCMC: capacity of 45,000 m3 / day.

Domestic wastewater standards in Vietnam

According to QCVN 14: 2008 / BTNMT, the standards for domestic wastewater in Vietnam include:
The basic parameters:
  • pH: 5,5 – 9
  • BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand): ≤ 30 mg / L
  • COD (chemical oxygen demand): ≤ 60 mg / L
  • TSS (suspended solids): ≤ 50 mg / L
  • NH4 + (ammonium): ≤ 10 mg / L
  • Total P: ≤ 6 mg / L
  • Total N: ≤ 40 mg / L
Microbiological indicators:
  • Coliform: ≤3000 MPN/100mL
  • E.coli: ≤100 MPN/100mL
Heavy metals:
  • Cd: ≤0,01 mg/L
  • Cr: ≤0,1 mg/L
  • Cu: ≤1 mg/L
  • Pb: ≤0,2 mg/L
  • As: ≤0,05 mg/L
  • Hg: ≤0.001 mg/L
  • Zn: ≤2 mg/L
In addition, the treated wastewater must be colorless, odorless and free of other toxic substances to be discharged into the environment or reused.

FAQ about domestic wastewater treatment systems

  • How does a home sewage treatment system, small workshop work? The home sewage treatment system, small workshop usually consists of septic tank, biofilter tank, sand filter tank and disinfection tank. The wastewater will be deposited and decomposed by bacteria in the septic tank, then go through the biofilter tank and sand filter tank to remove residue and pollution. Finally the water is disinfected with chlorine or UV light before being discharged into the environment.
  • Can the treated wastewater be reused? If the treated wastewater meets the standard of pollution level, it can be reused for some activities such as watering ornamental plants, washing cars, flushing toilets… However, it should be noted that it is not used for eating and living purposes.

Conclusion on domestic wastewater treatment system

Domestic wastewater treatment system is an important solution to help protect the environment and prevent water pollution. The application of advanced treatment technologies will bring high efficiency in wastewater treatment. It is necessary to have policies to encourage people and businesses to invest in wastewater treatment systems. In addition, raising public awareness about environmental protection and the importance of wastewater treatment is very necessary.
Natural Star Vina – a reputable unit in the field of design and construction of domestic wastewater treatment systems, helping businesses save maximum costs, improve productivity and operational efficiency of the system.

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