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Livestock Wastewater Treatment System

What is livestock wastewater?

Livestock wastewater is the wastewater generated from animal husbandry activities such as pigs, cattle, poultry, fish… This wastewater is derived from animal manure, chemicals, feed and other treatment substances used in the livestock process. Livestock wastewater contains many nutrients such as phosphates, nitrates and organic compounds, but also contains many toxic substances such as bacteria, viruses and heavy metals.
Livestock wastewater affects not only the water environment but also the soil environment due to the accumulation of toxic substances in the soil. The treatment of livestock wastewater is essential to minimize environmental pollution and maintain clean resources.
livestock wastewater treatment system hệ thống xử lý nước thải chăn nuôi 축산 폐수 처리 시스템

Characteristics of livestock wastewater

The characteristics of livestock waste water depend on the type of animal being raised and the associated farming activities. However, the general characteristics of livestock waste water are that it has an unpleasant odor, is cloudy in color and has many solids including feces, excess feed and other impurities. The waste water also has a high concentration of nutrients that cause the phenomenon of “blue water algae,” which reduces the amount of oxygen in the water and causes poisoning of organisms living in the water.

Technical regulations on livestock wastewater

The management and treatment of livestock wastewater is regulated by technical regulations to ensure that wastewater treatment is carried out in accordance with the process and achieves acceptable wastewater quality.
The technical regulations on livestock wastewater are issued by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development under Decree No. 40 / 2015 / ND-CP and Circular No. 25 / 2016 / TT-BNNPTNT. Accordingly, the standards on livestock wastewater include:
  • Dissolved oxygen concentration (DO): minimum 3mg / l
  • Ammonia concentration (NH3-N): not to exceed 20mg / l
  • Nitrate concentration (NO3-N): not to exceed 50mg / l
  • Nitrite concentration (NO2-N): not to exceed 3mg / l
  • Total heavy metal concentration: should not exceed 0.5mg / l
In addition, these standards also provide for limits on the concentration of pollutants in animal waste water. For example, the concentration of sulfate should not exceed 1000mg / l, the concentration of TSS (suspended solids) should not exceed 600mg / l.

The methods and technologies of treatment of livestock wastewater

There are many methods of wastewater treatment applied to reduce the negative impact of wastewater on the environment. Here are some common methods in the treatment of livestock wastewater:
  1. Physical treatment: This method uses physical processes to separate contaminants from wastewater. The physical processes include deposition, filtration, and isolation processes.
  2. Chemical treatment: This method uses chemicals to purify, deodorize, and remove contaminants in livestock wastewater. Chemicals such as oxidants, reducing agents, flocculants, and detergents are used to act on the pollutants and cause them to agglomerate into larger particles, which are easier to separate. Chemical treatment processes are often used in combination with other methods to achieve better effects.
  3. Bioremediation: Bioremediation methods use microorganisms to decompose and remove contaminants in livestock wastewater. Microorganisms such as bacteria and nitrate bacteria are capable of digesting organic matter and nitrogen in wastewater, turning them into non-toxic and non-polluting substances. Bioremediation systems include bioremediation tanks, bioremediation tanks, and bioremediation sludge treatment tanks.
  4. Membrane technology: Membrane technology uses membranes to remove contaminants and separate clean water from livestock wastewater. The membranes are capable of blocking particles and solids but allow water and small molecules to pass through. Membrane technology is commonly used in livestock wastewater treatment systems such as membrane equipment treatment systems (MBR) and high efficiency sludge treatment systems (EBPR).
  5. Advanced technology treatment: Advanced technology such as aerobic bacteria, microbial application treatment, and deodorization oxidation are used to treat livestock wastewater using more advanced methods and technologies.

Hệ Thống Xử Lý Nước Thải Chăn Nuôi 축산 폐수 처리 시스템 Livestock Wastewater Treatment System(1)

 

Diagram of livestock wastewater treatment system

To help you better understand the livestock wastewater treatment process, below is a diagram describing the pig wastewater treatment system.
Step 1: Mechanical processing
The first step in the wastewater treatment process is the use of physical devices such as filters, pressure cutters, and solids collection pits to remove suspended solids present in the wastewater. After passing through these devices, the wastewater will be introduced into the biological tank.
Step 2: The biological treatment process
In biological tanks, natural materials such as sand, rocks or soil are used as habitats for bacteria. The bacteria will conduct wastewater treatment by decomposing organic matter and transforming toxic substances into non-toxic substances.
Step 3: Chemical treatment process
After passing through the bioreactor tank, the wastewater is introduced into the chemical treatment tank. Here, chemicals such as chlorine or ozone are used to remove nutrients and kill bacteria.
Step 4: Heavy metal precipitation process
Finally, the wastewater will be polymerized into the heavy metal precipitation tank to remove most of the remaining toxic substances. This tank uses chemicals and precipitation processes to remove the heavy metals present in the wastewater.

Advantages and disadvantages of livestock wastewater treatment system

Advantages:
  • High efficiency: The pig water treatment system uses many different methods, thereby helping to achieve high efficiency in wastewater treatment and ensuring standard wastewater quality.
  • Cost savings: Although the initial cost of building a wastewater treatment system can be quite expensive, when applied long-term, it will save you money because there is no need to hire external wastewater treatment services.
  • Water reuse: Swine wastewater treatment systems can reuse treated wastewater for other purposes such as watering plants or making fertilizer.
Disadvantages
  • High initial investment costs: The construction of pig water treatment systems requires large initial investment costs, especially when using new and modern technologies.
  • High technical requirements: As this is a complex process and involves many different technologies, the operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment systems also requires high engineering.
  • Not completely remove pollutants: Although the pig wastewater treatment system is highly effective, it is not possible to remove all toxic substances in the wastewater. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure the treatment and use of safe chemicals to avoid harming the environment.

Conclusion

In the context of water scarcity and environmental pollution, the treatment of livestock wastewater plays an important role in protecting the environment and ensuring the safety of human health. Modern technologies applied in the treatment of animal wastewater such as biological treatment systems, the use of chemicals and ultraviolet light have been proven to be effective in reducing the amount of pollutants in wastewater.
Choosing Natural Star Vina a reputable unit in the field of design and construction of professional wastewater treatment systems is essential, helping you save maximum costs and time. The most important thing is that we ensure the output standards of wastewater meet the environmental standards prescribed by law.

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